At this year’s Hammersmith Echocardiography Conference, Professor Petros Nihoyannopoulos (Imperial College, London) spoke of the importance of cooperation and open discussion between sonographers (in this case, echocardiographers), and the pitfalls of ‘echo in isolation’ in the context of the rapidly evolving imaging modality that is ultrasound (Nihoyannopoulos, 2016). These same principles apply to ultrasound technicians across the board: from human to veterinary, from professional to paraprofessional. Indeed, the importance of an association for self-employed lay scanners, who would otherwise practice in isolation, is arguably even more vital. A commitment to continued learning is a responsibility that comes with the......
Yvette Lovis is a human obstetric sonographer, undertaking both NHS and private work. She also teaches canine pregnancy scanning to dog breeders and veterinarians. The following article is a guide to the foetal (hereafter spelt “fetal”) heart in the canine and human foetus (hereafter spelt “fetus”). A basic understanding of the carviovascular system of the developing fetus is important, and certainly, achieving a basic four-chamber view of the beating fetal heart is a must when confirming viability of a pregnancy. The circulatory system before birth Within the uterus, the canine and human fetal heart......
As discussed in previous articles, ultrasound is very safe. The biggest danger in its operation is almost certainly that which is common to all electrical devices: electrical safety, trip hazards, the machine being pulled off a table and injuring an animal or person, and so on. If your scanner were to malfunction and pass an electrical charge to a person or an animal, the legal responsibility would lie with the manufacturer, right? Not necessarily. In the absence of a cooperative manufacturer willing to take responsibility (which, when purchasing from abroad, is almost guaranteed),......
We know that ultrasound deposits energy into tissue in two ways: • Vibration • Heat. Due to the fact that tissue is being affected in these ways, the potential for damage exists, and it was for this reason that the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) were created. Mechanical Index One ‘quick fix’ image optimisation trick is to increase output power, and therefore the MI. This increases the signal-to-noise ratio, and can result in a clearer image. However, there are usually a number of other controls one can optimise first (such as......